The Alliance Army were the ground forces of the Alliance Military, consisting of the Alliance Special Forces controlled by Alliance High Command, and various Sector Forces controlled by a Sector Commander. It was later replaced by the New Republic Army.
The Alliance Army was founded and operated until the Battle of Endor as a guerrilla force – aimed at tying down and harassing an enemy force rather than meeting that enemy in open battle. An Alliance Army force could expect to be outnumbered in any given battle it fought against the Imperial Army, and as such its tactics were geared towards 'hit and run' rather than conventional battle.
The Alliance Army's infantry was formed partly of the Alliance Special Forces, Sector Forces, and SpecOps divisions. Organizations formed of highly trained commandos and agents, who performed a series of guerrilla attacks throughout the Galactic Civil War with the aim of undermining, pilfering from and ultimately destroying the Empire. The rest of the Alliance Army's infantry was made up of Sector Forces with the vast majority of the personnel being Rebel troopers.
The Rebel Alliance Army and Sector Force had a largely standardized command structure. While it could vary from sector to sector, most Sector Forces used the following organization:
- Corporal: Second-in-command in a squad of nine troops. The corporal was the senior-most trooper.
- Sergeant: Commanded a squad of 9 troopers.
- Lieutenant: Commanded a platoon (4 squads).
- Captain: Commanded a company (4 platoons).
- Major: Commanded a battalion (4 companies).
- Colonel: Commanded a regiment (4 battalions). Occasionally commanded brigades (4 regiments). The colonel was occasionally referred to as a regimental commander.
- General: Commanded brigades (4 regiments) or corps (4 brigades). A sector's most senior general could also command a Sector Army.
In the Navy, the rank of Petty officer, Chief Petty Officer, Ensign, Lieutenant, Lieutenant Commander, Commander, and Captain were the ranks beneath the rank of Admiral (with Admiral of the Fleet as the Supreme Commander (Alliance/Republic) of the combined Alliance Fleet). Beneath the officers were the ordinary crewmen, generally referred to as Deckmen.
When in major battles the Alliance was known to utilize several different vehicles.
Troopers on board the Tantive IV were seen using a two-man buddy system for point and cover fire.